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Oliver Walker
Oliver Walker

Heroic Age Sub Indo

Hector was by far the youngest child of the family, and had a very close relationship with his sister. Dora taught him both letters and Latin, and he later said that she "brought me up". Chadwick's father strongly encouraged his children to study, and used to tell Hector that a bear would come and carry him off if he did not learn his Latin. As a result, one of Chadwick's memories was peering for the bear through a window near the vicarage's front door.[4]

heroic age sub indo

In 1894, his "The Origin of the Latin Perfect Formation in -ui" was published in Adalbert Bezzenberger's Beitrage zur Kunde der indo-germanischen Sprachen. It was during this time, when visiting his brother Murray, that Chadwick came upon Paul Du Chaillu's The Viking Age. Through this book, Chadwick gained a strong interest in the early civilizations of Northern Europe. The book was characterized by an interdisciplinary approach to every aspect of its subject, which was an approach which was also to characterize his future teaching and research.[8] In the summer of 1895, Chadwick attended lectures at the University of Freiburg under Wilhelm Streitberg.[6]

Clearly, the phrase "six hundred and thirty millionparticles" refers to the population of India; as Saleem disintegrates sodoes the myth and body politic of the nation. While this discussion ofRushdie's Midnight's Children is brief and necessarily partial,what it usefully illuminates is the contemporary Indian novel'ssymbolization of suffering masculinity as embodied secular nationalism in thepostcolonial context. The sterilized Saleem becomes iconic victim and criticof the postcolonial nation and its political elite. Moreover, this novel alsoproblematizes, even as it makes visible, the heroicization of the violentmasculinity of Shiva-an Indian Army war hero and government bureaucrat-fromthe seventies onwards. In this way, Rushdie both signals and criticizes theemerging dominance of a muscular, militant, masculine Hindu nationalism inthe postcolonial public sphere.

[16] In the end, events proceed very dramatically: as Hukum Chand(the magistrate newly arrived in Mano Majra "to maintain thepeace") has planned, the Muslims of Mano Majra are forced to leave thevillage. They are evacuated first to a refugee camp in a nearby townChundunnugger, and then to Pakistan by train, with only as many belongings asthey can carry in hand. Their property is ransacked and taken over by localdacoits and Sikh refugees from Pakistan that had taken shelter in thevillage. Finally, these same people hatch a plot to kill as many Muslims asthey can when the train carrying the Muslim refugees from the Chundunnuggercamp passes through Mano Majra's railway station. Refugee trains at thistime, overflowed with passengers, with people traveling even on the rooftopsof the trains, as the compartments were overcrowded. Their plan was tostretch a strong rope across the span of the bridge, a foot above the heightof the funnel of the engine, such that when the train passes under it, itwill sweep off all the people (at least five hundred) sitting on the roof ofthe train. The plan is foiled when Jugga uncovers it, and discovers that hisbeloved Nooran (who, unbeknownst to him, is pregnant with his child) is onthat same train. He heroically cuts off the rope just as the train arrives;wounded, he falls and is crushed under the train even as it passes on safelyto Pakistan. Jugga's love for his departing Muslim beloved saves thelives of hundreds of refugees. The novel thus valorizes heroic inter-ethniclove, and envisions it as the only redemptive force in the midst of thissenseless violence.

Thus, the end of the novel redeems Hukum Chand's communalistacts through his realization of his 'feelings' for the Muslim girlsex worker. In other words, his sentimentality about the Muslim sex-workerand refugee mitigates his communalist sentiments. In doing so, the novelcriticizes communalist ideology, but fails to challenge the production ofwomen as sexual objects and cultural symbols that grounds ethnic sexualviolence. Ultimately, the novel's ambivalence towards Chand perhapsexemplifies the middle-class sentiment about communal violence in thismoment: the narrator both embraces Chand's criticism of nationalistpoliticians and the price that ordinary Indians paid for their so calledfreedom and tryst with destiny, as well as reveals Chand to be a communalist,mean, and corrupt state representative who engineers the destruction of ManoMajra's peace. In this ambivalence, where Chand is almost but not quitea hero or a villain, the novel articulates the middle-classes'ambivalence towards communalism--and consequent complicity with its ethnicviolence--at this time. It is this ambivalence that becomes the condition ofpossibility for the resurgence of Hindu ethnic nationalism in contemporaryIndia; in a sense, the bureaucrat Chand prefigures the current popularheroicization of militant, middle-class, statist, Hindu masculinities intransnational Indian public spheres as also uncovered in AnandPatwardhan's critical documentary Father, Son and the Holy War (1994).Here also lies the novel's failure in transcending and envisioning abeyond to the patriarchal and communalist discourses of its time.

[19] Although the state official Chand ends up being partiallyredeemed by his sentimental love in the narrative, it is Jugga--a commoncriminal--who is good-hearted, sincere, and ultimately, a secular hero. Juggais seen to be ethical in that he does not commit crimes against his fellowMano Majrans, and ultimately, a hero because he sacrifices his life for truelove. In doing so, he contradicts Chand's class-prejudiced assertionthat "His type never risked their necks for women. If Nooran was killedhe would pick up another girl;" thus, Jugga transcends dominantdiscourses of class identity and religious belonging that mark nationalcitizenship and engender ethnic violence in the nation. It is significant andironic that it is the figure of Jugga, as the young, hyper-masculine, sexual,'bad' man, and not the state representative, that ensures thesafety of Muslim refugees going to Pakistan. Jugga's heroic act ofsaving the life of hundreds of Muslims thus undercuts Chand's bestefforts to engineer the saboteurs' violence. However, if Jugga'slower class criminality is redeemed by his heroic true love, it does so onlythrough the dematerialization of his body. It is on his crushed, rural,masculine body that the triumph of secularism--figured as heterosexualinter-faith love--is inscribed.

[20] It is notable that all the inter-ethnic sexual relationshipsthat appear in the novel are between Sikh/Hindu men and Muslim women. Nowhereis the Muslim man a figure of embodied masculinity and heroism, involved witha non-Muslim woman. The Muslim woman here is represented through theparadigmatic opposition of either girl-whore (Haseena Begum) or mother(Nooran). Nooran's pregnant body carrying the product of Sikh-Muslimlove becomes symbolic not only of the birth of the Pakistani nation, but alsosuggestive of the impurity of ethnic and national identities. At the sametime, this birth of the Pakistani nation is inscribed as symbolically enabledthrough the violent sacrifice of Jugga's strong, potent, masculine, andheroic body--the Sikh male body. Jugga's wounded, peasant body becomesan embodiment of both the region of Punjab and the secular Indian nation.Simultaneously however, this embodiment of true India becomes a victim ofnationalist politics and its failures. Thus, in the epic romance of thisnovel, it is the sincere, secular, male peasant who is both victim andauthentic representative of true India. In other words, through theperformativity of sexed masculine identities, reinforcing codes of chivalrousmasculinity, the novel produces Jugga as both secular hero and victim of thenation. The violence to the heterosexual male citizen's body thusbecomes the evidence of the failure of the Indian nation-state as a utopiansite for granting freedom from colonial violence, and the failure ofnationalist politics, in much contemporary literature. Like Saleem inMidnight's Children later, Jugga embodies a secular Indian nationalism.But if Saleem is an urban mirror-citizen of the nation and of 'the greatIndian middle class,' Jugga as a secular peasant hero typifies thecritical representation of national citizenship and its suffering in theearly years of Indian independence.

[21] Train to Pakistan draws upon a familiar motif of epicromance: the lover takes care of the beloved, at the cost of his life.Jugga's secular love, transcending communalism, is banished from thestructural-symbolic world of nations secured through ethnic difference inthis novel; yet, Jugga's somatic sacrifice is not simply an imaginarycontestation that engineers the failure of communalism in this moment ofcrisis. It is also, in the shape and form of Nooran's pregnant body andhis own crushed one, a troubling return of a humanist, non-national,non-communal force illuminating the violent and contingent boundaries ofcommunalist nationalism--as Judith Butler puts it in a different context,"an enabling disruption, the occasion for a radical re-articulation ofthe symbolic horizon in which bodies come to matter at all" (Butler,23). Jugga's male body takes the wound of the nation-state, in anembodied performance of a sensate, secular democracy; however, Nooran andHaseena's bodies, sexually and culturally othered (through prostitutionand pre-marital pregnancy) are deployed differently--they are not coded asheroic. The only heroic femininity in this discourse is that of the Sikhwomen who commit suicide to stave off potential rape and are dead. Both maleas well as female bodies are being worked in this novel's narrative;yet, if the male body is heroicized, the female body is a transitionalobject, a symbolizing site of intelligibility in the rhetoric of nationalism.In other words, the imminent temporality of the Indian nation can exist onlythrough the traumatizing banishment of inter-ethnic love, and of impure,unintelligible, inter-ethnic identities whose future possibility is embodiedby a pregnant Nooran. The novel brings out the what Arjun Appadurai hascalled the uncertainty and impurity of ethnic national identities- whichcommunalism disavows-through the figure of Nooran; yet it displaces thisuncertainty and hybridity of ethnic location embodied by Nooran's fetuselsewhere, on the other side of the national border, in Pakistan (225). IfJugga's is an ideal, honorable masculinity, then Nooran's fecundfemininity, because of its Islamic origins, must both inspire it (tosymbolize the secular) and disappear (to stave off the threat of ethnicimpurity in the "secular" nation).


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