Ahmed Refik Lale Devri Pdf Download [UPD]
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Ahmed Refik and the Tulip Era
Ahmed Refik AltÄnay (1880-1937) was a Turkish historian and writer who popularized history among the public. He wrote about various aspects of Ottoman history, culture and society, using a lively and poetic style. One of his most famous works is Lale Devri (The Tulip Era), which describes the 18th century period of Ottoman history marked by cultural and artistic flourishing, as well as political turmoil.
The Tulip Era began with the reign of Sultan Ahmed III (1703-1730), who was interested in literature, art and science. He patronized many poets, painters and scholars, and encouraged the introduction of new ideas and technologies from Europe. He also built lavish palaces and gardens, such as the Sa'dabad complex on the banks of the KaÄÄthane River, where he hosted parties and festivals. The tulip became a symbol of this era, as it was imported from Iran and cultivated in various colors and shapes. The most famous poet of this era was Nedim, who praised the beauty and joy of life in Istanbul.
However, the Tulip Era also had its dark side. The Ottoman Empire faced many external and internal challenges, such as wars with Russia, Persia and Austria, rebellions in the provinces, corruption and mismanagement in the administration, and social unrest among the people. The lavish spending of the sultan and his grand vizier, Äbrahim Pasha, also aroused resentment among some segments of society, especially the religious conservatives and the Janissaries. In 1730, a revolt led by Patrona Halil, a fireman from Albania, broke out in Istanbul and overthrew Ahmed III and Äbrahim Pasha. The Tulip Era came to an abrupt end with this violent coup.
Ahmed Refik wrote Lale Devri in 1912, based on his research of historical sources and documents. He aimed to present a vivid picture of this fascinating period of Ottoman history, using anecdotes, poems and illustrations. He also compared and contrasted the Tulip Era with his own time, which was also marked by cultural and political changes. He hoped to inspire his readers to appreciate the achievements and learn from the mistakes of their ancestors.
Lale Devri is one of the classic works of Turkish historical literature. It can be downloaded as a PDF file from various online sources[^1^] [^2^] [^3^]. It is also available in print from some libraries and bookstores.Here are some more details about Lale Devri and its author.
The Structure and Style of Lale Devri
Lale Devri consists of eight chapters, each focusing on a different aspect of the Tulip Era. The first chapter gives an overview of the 12th century of the Islamic calendar (1701-1800 CE), which corresponds to the Tulip Era and its aftermath. The second chapter describes the reign of Sultan Ahmed III and his grand vizier Äbrahim Pasha, and their policies and achievements. The third chapter deals with the development of printing and publishing in the Ottoman Empire, and the impact of European books and newspapers on Ottoman culture and society. The fourth chapter depicts the life and culture of Istanbul, the capital of the empire, and its various neighborhoods, markets, mosques, schools and entertainment venues. The fifth chapter focuses on the Sa'dabad complex, the most famous example of Tulip Era architecture and gardening. The sixth chapter discusses the tulip craze, which involved the cultivation, trade and display of various types of tulips, and the influence of tulips on art and literature. The seventh chapter introduces the poet Nedim, who was the most prominent representative of Tulip Era poetry, and analyzes some of his poems. The eighth chapter narrates the events of the Patrona Halil revolt, which ended the Tulip Era and brought about a change of regime.
Ahmed Refik wrote Lale Devri in a clear and engaging style, using simple and elegant language. He used many quotations from historical sources, such as chronicles, memoirs, letters and official documents, to support his arguments and illustrate